Based on the knowledge of smart manufacturing, this chapter focuses on the smart manufacturing reference architecture, including the definition of the reference architecture, the logic behind it, how to design the system architecture of smart manufacturing, how to design smart factories, and the most basic unit systems that make up smart factories. The purpose is to guide intelligent manufacturing systems, especially to guide the implementation of smart factories. That belongs to the category of cognitive methods.
The underlying logic of intelligent manufacturing refers to the logic of designing the reference architecture of the intelligent manufacturing system, where does it come from, and where does it go? Why is it designed like this?
In Chapter 2.1, paradigm refers to the values and methodology of a field. Intelligent manufacturing is a huge paradigm shift compared to traditional manufacturing. The system reference architecture of intelligent manufacturing is about the methodology of intelligent manufacturing. What is the logic behind it?
Peter Drucker, the famous management master, said that the business creates customers by products and services. The product is designed and manufactured, and how to make the product is the most central part of smart manufacturing. The enterprise is the organization that ensures this realization process around the product value chain and constantly creates products that satisfy customers according to their needs.
The underlying logic of the intelligent manufacturing reference architecture is shown in Figure 3-1. First, it starts from the product value chain. Then, the enterprise-level architecture ensures the product value realization process, supported by different perspectives such as assets, new technologies, and business flows. Finally, it launches the intelligent manufacturing system Reference architecture, the underlying logic of intelligent manufacturing.
Figure 3-1 Smart Manufacturing Reference Architecture Logic
Intelligent manufacturing takes the product value chain as the core and uses enterprise architecture and hierarchical systems to ensure products from ideas, prototypes to product realization. Furthermore, in product transformation from virtual to reality, it is necessary to support the hierarchical system through different perspectives as possible to realize the products customers require. Therefore, reflecting the system architecture in a three-dimensional space composed of the product value chain, enterprise architecture, and support layer can better illustrate how intelligent manufacturing is implemented. Thus, three-dimensional space, plus a time axis, four-dimensional space-time is the realization process of intelligent manufacturing.
Based on this logic, the intelligent manufacturing reference system architecture is derived, which is the basis of the smart factory methodology.
Smart Manufacturing Reference Architecture (SMRA) refers to a set of system architectures, behaviors, and models that guide the implementation of smart manufacturing, combined with specific applications, to design smart factory systems. The is shown in Figure 3-2.
The right-hand coordinate system based on XYZ’s three-dimensional space is adopted. The core product value chain is taken as the X-axis, and the enterprise’s hierarchical structure is taken as the Y-axis. The X and Y axes constitute the most basic horizontal plane.
The X-axis is the process of creating value, and the Y-axis ensures value realization. This horizontal plane is the basis of manufacturing. The intelligent manufacturing system architecture is the cube based on this plane.
The X-axis is the product value chain, also known as the product life cycle axis. The starting point starts with creativity, including creativity, model, production, assembly, logistics, service, and regeneration.
Figure 3-2 Smart Manufacturing Reference Architecture Diagram (SMRA)
Build digital intelligent manufacturing product models based on creativity and craftsmanship, and develop prototypes based on them. Then, according to the prototype, organize production (physical objects), assemble it according to the system, transport it to the customer’s location (logistics), and do installation and maintenance services. Finally, the product is recycled to protect the environment, completing the entire life cycle.
The model part is also part of the digital twin. The models here are design models and simulations, all process models, and all data closely related to intelligent machines to ensure final manufacturing.
The Y-axis enterprise hierarchy (Hierarchy System) can also be referred to as the production architecture axis. The starting point is also the product, including processes, intelligent machines, production lines, sections, workshops, factories, enterprises, and external connections.
The factory takes the product as the source, determines the process according to the product, and uses the intelligent machine to complete the specific process for production. First, the assembly line connects, and a process sequence is completed in the station to realize the connection of different processes better. Then came the workshop level, factory level, and corporate headquarters (Enterprise). It also needs to work with the outside world, the external connection to the Industrial Internet to complete a product.
Take the X and Y axes as the elemental plane of intelligent manufacturing. That is, the value of the factory’s existence is to manufacture products (creating customers). To achieve this goal, the company’s organizational structure, asset allocation, and the adoption of new technologies support intelligent manufacturing.
The Z-axis is a different angle of view or called the support axis. Including assets, data, functions, business flow, execution, intelligent manufacturing, Internet of Things, etc. Use their focus to restrain or support the factory. Different perspectives refer to various stakeholders, which can also be called participants. Different perspectives are projected on the XY plane. Participants include investors, customers, users, managers, engineers, etc., each participant’s perspective is different, and they pay attention to their points. To support product manufacturing, it is necessary to purchase assets and continuously adopt new technologies, including intelligent manufacturing technology and industrial Internet of Things, etc., and to consider the concerns from the perspective of each participant (Stakeholder). If categorized by focus, it can be sliced according to business, security, assets, execution, big data, etc.
Intelligent manufacturing is a cube based on the XY plane, and a slice is obtained according to different Viewpoints; we call it a layer, which is the function of the Z-axis. All layers based on the Z-axis are for one purpose, to produce better products, provide better services, and create greater value. This layer is open. As long as it can support product development, production and service, you can add a layer at any time.
SMRA is integrated into the cognition, mission, and methodology of smart manufacturing. In the practice of specific smart manufacturing, smart factories can be designed through different axes, different planes, and different perspectives of the SMRA system architecture.